genitive adj : serving to express or indicate possession; "possessive pronouns"; "the genitive endings" [syn: possessive] n : the case expressing ownership [syn: genitive case, possessive case]
EtymologyFrom Latin genitus, the substantive form of genitalis meaning "pertaining to generation or birth", from the Greek genete, (birth).
of or pertaining to the case of possession
- Arabic: , (járri)
- Bulgarian: родителен (rodítelen)
- Catalan: genitiu , genitiva
- Czech: genitivní
- Dutch: genitief
- Finnish: genetiivi- (in compounds)
- French: génitif, génitive
- German: genitivisch
- Hebrew: יחס הקנײן (yakhas ha-knayn)
- Hungarian: birtokos
- Icelandic: eignarfalls- (in compounds)
- Japanese: 属格 (ぞっかく, zokkakú), 生格 (せいかく, seikakú; for Slavic)
- Latin: genetivus, genetiva, genetivum m/f/n
- Portuguese: genitivo, genitiva
- Russian: родительный, родительная, родительное, родительные (rodítel’nyj, rodítel’naja, rodítel’noje, rodítel’nyje) m/f/n/pl
- Slovene: rodilniški , rodilniška , rodilniško
- Spanish: genitivo, genitiva
- Swedish: genitiv
the genitive case
- Arabic: ,
- Bosnian: genitiv
- Bulgarian: родителен падеж (rodítelen padéž)
- Catalan: genitiu
- Croatian: genitiv
- Czech: genitiv, druhý pád
- Danish: ejefald
- Dutch: genitief, tweede naamval
- Finnish: genetiivi, omanto (obsolete)
- French: génitif
- German: Genitiv
- Greek: γενική
- Hebrew: יחס הקנײן (yakhas ha-knayn)
- Hungarian: birtokos eset
- Icelandic: eignarfall
- Latin: casus genetivus , patrius casus
- Latvian: ģenitīvs
- Lithuanian: kilmininkas
- Portuguese: genitivo
- Romanian: genitiv, caz genitiv
- Russian: родительный падеж (rodítel’nyj padéž)
- Slovak: druhý pád, genitív
- Slovene: rodilnik
- Spanish: genitivo
- Swedish: genitiv or
a word in the genitive inflection
- Swedish: genitiv or
Noungenitive n p
- Plural of genitiv
In grammar, the genitive case or possessive case (also called the second case) is the case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. It often marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun but it can also indicate various relationships other than possession; certain verbs may take arguments in the genitive case; and it may have adverbial uses (see Adverbial genitive). Modern English does not typically mark nouns for a genitive case morphologically — rather, it uses the clitic 's or a preposition (usually of) — but the personal pronouns do have distinct possessive forms.
Depending on the language, specific varieties of genitive-noun–main-noun relationships may include:
- possession (see Possessive case):
- composition (see Partitive
- substance ("a wheel of cheese")
- elements ("a group of men")
- source ("a portion of the food")
- participation in an action:
- origin ("men of Rome")
- description ("man of honour", "day of reckoning")
- compounds (Scottish Gaelic "ball coise" = "football", where "coise" = gen. of "cas", "foot")
Depending on the language, some of the relationships mentioned above have their own distinct cases different from the genitive.
Possessive pronouns are distinct pronouns, found in Indo-European languages such as English, that function like pronouns inflected in the genitive. They are considered separate pronouns if contrasting to languages where pronouns are regularly inflected in the genitive. For example, English my is either a separate possessive adjective or an irregular genitive of I, while in Finnish, for example, minun is regularly agglutinated from minu- "I" and -n (genitive).
In some languages, nouns in the genitive case also agree in case with the nouns they modify (that is, it is marked for two cases). This phenomenon is called suffixaufnahme.
In some languages, nouns in the genitive case may be found in inclusio — that is, between the main noun's article and the noun itself.
Many languages have a genitive case, including Arabic, Armenian, Czech, Finnish, Georgian, German, Greek, Icelandic, Irish, Latin, Latvian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Serbo Croatian, Slovenian and Turkish. English does not have a proper genitive case, but a possessive ending, -'s (see below), although pronouns do have a genitive case.
The English -'s ending
Possessive markerSome argue that it is a common misconception that English nouns have a genitive case, marked by the possessive -'s ending (known as the saxon genitive). Some linguists believe that English possessive is no longer a case at all, but has become a clitic, an independent particle that is always pronounced as part of the preceding word. This is claimed on the basis of the following sort of example: "The king of Sparta's wife was called Helen." If the English -'s were a genitive case mark, then the wife would belong to Sparta; but the -'s attaches not to the word Sparta, but to the entire phrase the king of Sparta.
Despite the above, the English possessive did originate in a genitive case. In Old English, a common singular genitive ending was -es. The apostrophe in the modern possessive marker is in fact an indicator of the e that is "missing" from the Old English morphology.
The use of an independently written particle for the possessive can be seen in the closely related Dutch language: de man z'n hand (the man's hand, z'n, short for zijn, means his).
The 18th century explanation that the apostrophe might replace a genitive pronoun, as in "the king's horse" being a shortened form of "the king, his horse", is debated. This his genitive appears in English only for a relatively brief time. The construction occurs in southern German dialects and has replaced the genitive there, together with the "of" construction that also exists in English. While modern English speakers might expect that plurals and feminine nouns would form possessives using '-r', such as "*The queen'r children", in fact "his" or "hys" could be used for speakers and writers of either gender throughout most of the mediaeval and Renaissance period.
Remnants of the genitive case remain in Modern English in a few pronouns, such as whose (the genitive form of who), my/mine, his/her/hers/its, our/ours, their/theirs, etc. See also declension in English.
Uses of the marker in EnglishThe English construction in -'s has various uses other than a possessive marker. Most of these uses overlap with a complement marked by 'of' (the music of Beethoven or Beethoven's music), but the two constructions are not equivalent. The use of -'s in a non-possessive sense is more prevalent, and less restricted, in formal than informal language.
Genitive of origin; subjective genitiveJesus.
Objective genitive; classifying genitive
- the Hundred Years' War
- a dollar's worth
- two weeks' notice
- speech of an appropriate tone
- A Midsummer Night's Dream
- a man's world
- runner's high
- the Teachers' Lounge
In these constructions, the marker serves to specify, delimit, or describe the head noun. The paraphrase with of is often un-idiomatic or ambiguous with these genitives:
- the war of a Hundred Years
- the pay of a day
- notice of two weeks
They introduce the likelihood of misunderstanding.
Genitive of purpose
- women's shoes
- children's literature
This is not a common usage. The more usual expression is the fair city of Dublin.
- that hard heart of thine ("Venus and Adonis" line 500)
- this extreme exactness of his ("Tristram Shandy", chapter 1.IV)
- Any Friend of Nicholas Nickleby's is a Friend of Mine
- a picture of the king's (that is, a picture owned by the king, as distinguished from a picture of the king, one in which the king is portrayed)
Some writers regard this as a questionable usage, although it has a history in careful English. Some object to the name, as the "of" clause is not a genitive. Alternative names are "double possessive" and "oblique genitive". The Oxford English Dictionary says that this usage was "Originally partitive, but subseq. ... simple possessive ... or as equivalent to an appositive phrase ...".
Adverbial genitiveThe ending "-s" without the apostrophe, to form an adverb of time, is considered to be a remnant of an Old English genitive, and there is a "literary" periphrastic form.
- closed Sundays
- of a summer day
Baltic Finnic "genitives"In Baltic-Finnic languages, the accusative case -(e)n is homophonic to the genitive case. In Estonian, it is often said that only a "genitive" exists. However, the cases have completely different functions, and the form of the accusative has developed from *-(e)m. (The same sound change has developed into a synchronic mutation of a final 'm' into 'n' in Finnish, e.g. genitive sydämen vs. nominative sydän.) This homophony has exceptions in Finnish, where a separate accusative -(e)t is found in pronouns, e.g. kenet "who (telic object)", vs. kenen "whose", and some of the Sámi languages, where the pronouns and the plural of nouns in the genitive and accusative are easily distinguishable from each other, e.g., kuä'cǩǩmi "eagles' (genitive plural)" and kuä'cǩǩmid "eagles (accusative plural)" in Skolt Sami.
The genitive case in Slavic languages
In Slavic languages such as Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Polish, etc., both nouns and adjectives reflect the genitive case using a variety of endings depending on whether the word is a noun or adjective, its gender, and number (singular or plural).
PossessivesTo indicate possession, the ending of the noun indicating the possessor changes to а, я, ы or и, depending on the word's ending in the nominative case. For example:
- Nominative: "Вот Антон" ("Here is Anton").
- Genitive: "Вот карандаш Антона" ("Here is Anton's pencil").
Possessives can also be formed by the construction "У [subject] есть [object]":
- Nominative: "Вот Сергей" ("Here is Sergei").
- Genitive: "У Сергея есть карандаш" ("Sergei has a pencil").
In sentences where the possessor includes an associated pronoun, the pronoun also changes:
- Nominative: "Вот мой брат" ("Here is my brother").
- Genitive: "У моего брата есть карандаш" ("My brother has a pencil").
And in sentences denoting negative possession, the ending of the object noun also changes:
- Nominative: "Вот Ирина" ("Here is Irina").
- Genitive: "У Ирины нет карандаша" ("Irina does not have a pencil").
To express negationThe genitive case is also used in sentences expressing negation, even when no possessives are involved. The subject noun's ending changes just as it does in possessive sentences:
- Nominative: "Мария дома?" ("Is Maria at home?").
- Genitive: "Марии нет дома" ("Maria is not at home," literally, "Of Maria there is none at home.").
To express partial direct objectThe genitive case is used with some verbs and mass nouns to indicate that the action covers only a part of the direct object, whereas similar constructions using the accusative case denote full coverage. Compare the sentences:
- Genitive: "Я выпил воды" ("I drank water," i.e. "I drank some
water, part of the water available")
- Accusative: "Я выпил воду ("I drank the water," i.e. "I drank all the water, all available water")
Genitive case in Turkish
Unlike in Germanic languages, there are different modalities of genitive in Turkish, such as definite and indefinite. The definite genitive case in Turkish is constructed using two suffixes, one for the possessor and for the possessed object, for example:
- Nominative: Kadın (woman) ayakkabı (shoe)
- Genitive : Kadının ayakkabısı (the shoe of the woman)
In the indefinite form, only the possessed word gets a suffix:
- Nominative: Kadın (woman) kıyafet (clothing)
- Genitive : Kadın kıyafeti (women's clothing)
Genitive case in Semitic languages
Genitive case marking existed in Proto-Semitic, Akkadian, and Ugaritic. It indicated possession, and it is preserved today only in literary Arabic.
Genitive in Akkadian
- Nominative: šarrum (a/the king)
- Genitive: aššat šarrim (the wife of a/the king = king's wife)
Genitive in Arabic
- Nominative: baytun (a house)
- Genitive: bābu baytin (the door of a house) bābu al-bayti (the door of the house)
The Arabic genitive marking also appears after certain prepositions.
- e.g. bābun li-baytin (a door for a house)
The Semitic genitive should not be confused with the pronominal possessive suffixes that exist in all the Semitic languages
- e.g. Arabic bayt-ī (my house) kitābu-ka (thy [masc.] book).
Genitive in astronomy
In the case of constellations, it is useful to know the genitive of the constellation's Latin name, since this is used to make the Bayer designation of stars in that constellation. For instance, since the genitive of the Latin word virgo ("virgin") is virginis, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo is known as Alpha Virginis. Many references on constellations list the genitive for each constellation.
genitive in Afrikaans: Genitief
genitive in Tosk Albanian: Genitiv
genitive in Aragonese: Chenitibo
genitive in Bosnian: Genitiv
genitive in Bulgarian: Родителен падеж
genitive in Catalan: Cas genitiu
genitive in Czech: Genitiv
genitive in Danish: Genitiv
genitive in German: Genitiv
genitive in Modern Greek (1453-): Γενική
genitive in Spanish: Caso genitivo
genitive in Esperanto: Genitivo
genitive in Persian: اضافه (دستور زبان)
genitive in French: Génitif
genitive in Scottish Gaelic: Ginideach
genitive in Galician: Xenitivo
genitive in Croatian: Genitiv
genitive in Icelandic: Eignarfall
genitive in Italian: Genitivo
genitive in Latin: Casus genetivus
genitive in Hungarian: Birtokos eset
genitive in Macedonian: Генитив
genitive in Dutch: Genitief
genitive in Japanese: 属格
genitive in Chechen: Доланиг дожар
genitive in Norwegian: Genitiv
genitive in Norwegian Nynorsk: Genitiv
genitive in Polish: Dopełniacz (przypadek)
genitive in Portuguese: Caso genitivo
genitive in Romanian: Cazul genitiv
genitive in Russian: Родительный падеж
genitive in Slovak: Genitív
genitive in Serbian: Генитив
genitive in Serbo-Croatian: Genitiv
genitive in Finnish: Genetiivi
genitive in Swedish: Genitiv
genitive in Turkish: Genitif
genitive in Ukrainian: Родовий відмінок
genitive in Venetian: Genitivo
genitive in Chinese: 属格